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Zero Anaphora Corpus (ZAC)


ZAC - Zero Anaphora Corpus is a corpus of Brazilian Portuguese texts built in view of the construction of an Anaphora Resolution system, which is part of the STRING system. The ZAC corpus is aimed at the resolution of the so-called zero-anaphora, that is, an anaphora relation where the anaphoric expression (or anaphor) has been zeroed.

In the following, we briefly present the main linguistic aspects involved in the process of annotating zero anaphora.

The Zero Anaphora Corpus (ZAC) consists on a set of full and partial texts retrieved from the web, or digitalised from books, encompassing several genres and text types, namely journalistic and literary text from contemporary Brazilian Portuguese native-speaking authors, totalling 35,212 words.

Table 1. Breakdown of the contents of the ZAC corpus per text type (words/percentage).
Text type Words  %
Special Report 15,791 44.88
News 1,769 5.02
Chronicle 8,385 23.81
Fiction (short stories) 3,227 9.17
Fiction (novel) 6,040 17.15

The corpus was jointly annotated by two linguists, who revised and discussed each other’s work, so that each annotation one of them encoded was always checked by the other annotator.

The annotation of zero anaphora consisted, basically, in inserting a tag for the zero anaphor with the form ‘[0=<x]’ in the empty slot of the zeroed constituent, linking it to its immediate antecedent (x) and determining whether it appeared before ‘<’ (anaphora proper) or after ‘>’ the anaphor (cataphora). Inter-sentential anaphora is marked with double arrows ‘<<’ and ‘>>’, irrespective of the number of intervening sentences.

The Zero Anaphora Corpus an be download below

(File:ZAC Corpus v2.txt)